The Reserves

DND photo 2011-0230-240 by Sergeant Jean-François Néron

Reservists from the Fusiliers du St-Laurent, 35th Canadian Brigade Group (35 CBG) hone their skills during a river crossing exercise.

Canadian Armed Forces: A New Vision for the Reserves

by Rob Roy MacKenzie and Howard G. Coombs

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Major-General R.R.E. MacKenzie, OMM, CD, is a part-time Reservist who is the Chief of Reserves and Employer Support, located at the Canadian Armed Forces National Defence Headquarters. His full-time employment is as a Patrol Sergeant in the Vancouver Police Department. MacKenzie has commanded at all levels, from platoon to brigade, along with serving on operations in Cyprus, Central America, and Afghanistan. Upon promotion to brigadier-general, he became the Deputy Commander 3rd Canadian Division, then following that appointment, the Chief of Staff Army Reserve at Canadian Army Headquarters, before becoming a major-general and taking up his current position in 2019.

Colonel Howard G. Coombs, OMM, CD, Ph.D., is also a part-time Canadian Army Reservist who serves with the Office of the Chief of Reserves. In his civilian work, he is an Assistant Professor and the Associate Chair of War Studies at the Royal Military College of Canada in Kingston, Ontario. Coombs is a former brigade commander who has served on operational deployments to Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina and twice to Afghanistan. He received his Ph.D. in Military History from Queen’s University, also situated in Kingston. His research interests are Canadian professional military education, in addition to Canadian military operations and training.

The Reserve Force is an integral component of the Canadian Armed Forces… To this end, we will implement a new vision for the Reserve Force that will:

  • enable Reserve Force units and formations to provide full-time capability through part-time service;
  • ensure Reservists are a well integrated component of the total force; and
  • appropriately train, prepare and equip Reservists in sufficient numbers to be ready to contribute to operations at home and abroad.

Whether a task or duty is conducted by a Regular or Reserve Force member, the result will be indistinguishable operational excellence. Progress towards this goal is already underway but must be broadened across the military to ensure a truly integrated Canadian Armed Forces that provides effective operational output.

~ Canada, Department of National Defence, Strong, Secure, Engaged, (June 2017)1


The security situation of the 21st Century has been characterized by uncertainty, instability, and swift change. Adversaries can be individuals or groups, as well as states. They are empowered by information and technology, presenting dilemmas that are difficult to predict, and they are ever-changing. These challenges sometimes pose a security threat below the threshold of armed conflict. Additionally, opponents are often networked and are able to act quickly to exploit perceived weaknesses. Consequently, familiar methods of defence and security have diminished, and new ones have appeared, with surrounding events evolving at an accelerated rate. The latest challenge posed by COVID-19 saw the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) not only having to consider the impact of illness upon both military and civilian personnel, but contingency planning for how they would simultaneously fulfil operational commitments while protecting and preserving their forces for future activities. Furthermore, the prioritization of military support to civilian authorities and in what way force contributions would best be employed to alleviate pandemic effects was vital to efficient and effective assistance. All these factors put an unexpected strain on Canada’s defence and security structures. Amid constantly-evolving security challenges, it is necessary for the CAF to comprehend, and where possible, foresee future defence needs, and to plan for them. In particular, the development, support, and retention of a ready-capable, motivated, and relevant Reserve Force as a strategic and operational resource for Canada and the CAF is required, both now and well into the future.

Cover of 'Strong, Secure, Engaged.'

National Defence/Government of Canada

Working with its force generator counterparts, the aim of the Chief of Reserves and Employer Support team is to assist in the full implementation of the clearly-articulated integrated Reserve Vision outlined in Strong, Secure, Engaged: Canada’s Defence Policy.2 This is a vision which has been given impetus by today’s complex security environment, as articulated at Note 2. To aid the CAF with attaining the Reserve-related objectives in Strong, Secure, Engaged, the Chief of Reserves and Employer Support provides Reserve-specific advice to the Chief of Defence Staff and senior leadership. This assistance primarily falls into four Reserve focus areas to implement the objectives of 2017’s Strong, Secure, Engaged: (1) support to institutional integration; (2) support to retention; (3) learning from our allies and international partners; and (4) pan-CAF and external engagement. Vital to this effort is understanding the idea of ‘integration’ within the context of “Strong, Secure, Engaged.”3

DND photo PA03-2015-0217-005 by Corporal Mark Schombs

Primary Reserve and Regular Forces artillery soldiers from the 4th Canadian Division participating in Exercise Stalwart Guardian board a Boeing CH-147 Chinook helicopter as part of the mortar insertion exercise at Garrison Petawawa, 19 August 2015.

Reserve Integration: The Heart of the Matter

The CAF Reserves have played a substantial part in contributing to Canadian defence and security requirements for over four centuries. Over that time, operational employment has encompassed both domestic and international needs. In the 20th Century, the importance of Canada’s Reserve Forces was demonstrated during the First and Second World Wars, as well as during a host of other deployments in support of the United Nations and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Recently, between 2001-2014, the Reserves contributed, at times, up to 20 percent of personnel requirements for CAF operations in Afghanistan. Based upon this history and an assessment of future needs, Canada’s most recent defence policy recognizes and underscores the necessity for enhanced integration between the Reserve and the Regular forces.

There are several components to Canada’s Reserves. Firstly, the Primary Reserve consists of Navy, Army, Air Force, and Health Services units, together with Legal and Special Operations personnel that are each responsible to a service command. They can conduct or augment various operations with varying degrees of notice, depending upon whether it is a domestic or an international tasking. They may have specialized roles assigned by their element. Along with the ability to respond to these demands, the Reserve Force provides a CAF connection to Canadian communities, and it emphasizes citizenship through service to country. Secondly, the Canadian Rangers are the only continuous CAF presence in remote regions across the country, and they provide surveillance and patrol services. Thirdly, the Supplementary Reserve currently consists of inactive or retired members of the CAF, Regular or Reserve, who are willing and could be available for service until age 60. There is a five-year limit on retention in the Supplementary Reserve, due to what is referred to as “skill fade.” Lastly, the Cadet Organizations Administration and Training Service (COATS) consists of officers and non-commissioned members who conduct training, and supervise and administer the Canadian Cadet or Junior Canadian Ranger movement.

DND photo YK-2017-018-005 by Petty Officer 2nd Class Belinda Groves

A member of 1 Canadian Ranger Patrol Group leaves base camp on patrol during Operation Nunalivut 17, Hall Beach, Nunavut, 1 March 2017.

Strong, Secure, Engaged identifies Reserve integration as achieving “full-time capability through part-time service.”4 This Reserve integration has significant implications for all members of the CAF. It is a ‘two-way street.’ Building a full-time capability from the Reserves underpins efforts aimed at improving CAF operational capabilities to meet security challenges, both today and in the future. Strong, Secure, Engaged envisions a transition towards a highly-integrated CAF – a total force – to achieve this goal. This idea of integration, in turn, visualizes a Reserve Force increasingly supporting operational outputs, and providing full-time capability from part-time service, coupled with integrated policy and program development that supports the emerging role of the Reserve Force. Integration will lend itself to predictability in terms of organizational growth and alignment with emerging capabilities as Canada adapts to the changing nature of warfare.5 Reserve integration may eventually lead to an ‘adaptive’ or ‘alternative’ career path, with all CAF members able to have ‘portable’ terms of service to encompass the levels of commitment and time that they can provide to the institution.

To facilitate this institutional and operational evolution, pan-CAF policy and process development will eventually be aligned for Regular and Reserve Force members, supporting the institutional integration of Regular and Reserve Force capabilities. Accordingly, as the primary advisor of the Reserve Force, the Chief of Reserves and Employer Support organization remains connected and informed concerning ongoing CAF activities. This allows the Chief of Reserves and Employer Support to monitor Reserve issues, and to provide focused assistance, along with expert advice and policy development, to facilitate an integrated institution.

DND photo ET2017-0424-17 by Corporal Blaine Sewell

A domestic response company made up of reservists based in British Columbia fights fires near Riske Creek, BC, during Operation Lentus 17-04, 17 August 2017.

Support to Retention: Keeping the Force

The Chief of Reserves and Employer Support provides secretariat assistance, including liaison officers, as well as oversight both to and of the Canadian Forces Liaison Council (CFLC) and its network of civilian volunteers. This organization, which has a national and supporting provincial councils, provides outreach to employers regarding the benefits of supporting Reservists. They also conduct other employer support and retention activities in line with CAF and Department of National Defence (DND) senior leader expectations. The Chief of Reserves and Employer Support works with the CFLC, its volunteer network, and force generators to deliver the ExecuTrek program – thereby allowing employers to see what Reservists do – and public outreach initiatives including employer recognition programs and awards. Additionally, there is involvement with a wider series of employer support activities, such as: the Reserve Assistance Program, which is a conflict prevention or mitigation service that can be activated between Reservists, their employer, or an educational institution; the Reserve Unit Support Program, which provides Reservists the resources required to gain the support of local employers and educational institutions; and, the Compensation for Employers of Reservists Program (CERP).6

This latter activity has demonstrated a great amount of value in permitted reservists to meet operational commitments. CERP provides financial support to both civilian employers and self-employed Reservists who are deployed on both domestic and international operations. Applicants who are eligible will receive a lump sum payment in the form of a grant – following the deployment of the Reserve employee. The operating costs that can be reimbursed with the CERP grant include: the cost of training or hiring replacement worker(s); compensation for increased overtime hours worked by existing employees; reduced revenue; and, the realignment of business that was required to mitigate the reduction in staff.

Also, the Chief of Reserves and Employer Support, along with the CFLC, maintain contact with international and national groups that encourage employers to support Reservists. One prominent group is the International Conference on Employer Support for the Reserves (ICESR). The ICESR is an informal grouping of nations with aligned interests concerning the military and national potential of Reserve Forces. The conference has been held bi-annually since the mid-1990s, with hosting responsibility shared among member nations, a function that alternates on each occasion. Most of the participating countries are NATO members, and the last conference was held in Washington, DC, in 2019.7

Overall, the Chief of Reserves and Employer Support, assisted by the business and educational contacts resident in the CFLC, facilitate employer support for Reservists to participate in CAF operations and training. This ensures that pan-CAF employer support activities are well planned, coordinated, and sponsored within an integrated institution. Along with those efforts, they strive to ensure that civilian employment and education barriers to Reserve service are reduced. This must support and complement chain of command efforts to assist with increasing availability for training and operations, along with encouraging the retention of skilled Reservists. Recently, Chief of Reserves and Employer Support has also taken on a leadership role for a unique program initiated by the Clerk of the Privy Council several years ago that aids the hiring of Reserve Force members into the public service.8

DND photo RP002-2016-0040-394 by Master Corporal Andrew Davis

Corporal Miguel Jacques, a reservist from the Régiment de la Chaudière deployed with the Operation Reassurance Land Task Force, provides cover for an aerial medical evacuation during Exercise Anakonda, Wędrzyn, Poland, 13 June 2016.

Learning from our Allies and International Partners: Obtaining Knowledge

The Chief of Reserves and Employer Support manages pan-Reserve engagements in international forums that support elements of CAF development and training programs. These international engagements take two forms: (1) participation in various committees and sub-committees; (2) and selection and sponsoring Reserve Force members to participate in international courses or professional forums. Together, the individual training and professional development, along with the institutional connections and learning gained from all these activities, provide significant return to the CAF.

International forums in which the Chief of Reserves and Employer support participation are the National Reserve Forces Committee (NRFC), Confédération Interalliée des Officiers de Réserve (CIOR) and its partnered Confédération interalliée des officiers médicaux de reserve (CIOMR). All report annually to the NATO Military Committee (MC) concerning their activities. The NRFC was founded in 1981, and it has national representation from 24 countries (Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, the Czech Republic, Croatia, Denmark, Estonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Turkey, the United Kingdom and the United States), as well as six observer countries (Australia, Austria, Georgia, New Zealand, the Republic of Korea and Sweden). It meets regularly, normally bi-annually, and this includes liaison from other NATO military bodies, such as the International Military Staff, Allied Command Operations and Allied Command Transformation. Its principal objectives are the provision of policy advice to the NATO MC, giving a forum for NATO Reserves to share information and ‘best practices,’ and to liaise with organizations involved in Reserve affairs to maintain awareness and understanding of common activities and interests. The NRFC is mandated to provide an annual report to the MC on its work.9

Independent from the NRFC is the CIOR, which campaigns on behalf of National Reserve Officer Associations. Created in 1948, and recognized by NATO in 1976, its advocacy is focused upon promoting the capability and skills of Reserve officers, providing advice to the MC on these matters, and encouraging members to develop their national Reserve Forces. It also meets bi-annually and has several standing sub-committees. These are: (1) Defence Attitudes and Security Issues Committee; (2) Civil Military Cooperation Committee; (3) Military Competitions Committee; (4) Legal Committee; (5) Partnership for Peace and Outreach Committee; (6) Language Academy Committee; (7) Seminar Committee; and, (8) Young Reserve Officers Committee. While the NRFC is a NATO organization, the CIOR is NATO-affiliated, and it receives a significant amount of NATO support, which includes permanent facilities at NATO Headquarters with the international military staff.10

Connected to the CIOR is the CIOMR, which was founded in 1947. It represents medical officers within CIOR-member Reserve Forces. Its role is to create closer professional relationships with the medical services of Alliance members, as well as to promote better understanding and liaison with NATO active forces.11 Another organization of note, that has no official relationship, is the Confédération Interalliée des Sous-Officiers de Réserve (CISOR), formed in 1963. It has a mandate to contribute to enhancing the professionalism and effectiveness of their member nations’ non-commissioned officers, and its membership does include some NATO nations.12

These organizations are invaluable in creating awareness of Reserve issues, and, primarily through the NRFC and the CIOR, for provision of advice to the NATO MC. They share a common interest in securing the quality of Reserve Forces in compliance with national policies regarding the Reserves. From that, they serve as necessary forums for the sharing of ideas that enhance Reserve readiness, ideas that, with introspection, are useful to the CAF in facilitating the Reserve Vision.13

DND photo LS03-2017-1105-4330 by Cor poral Djalma Vuong-De Ramos

Canadian Army reservists from various units in Montréal and Ontario carry sandbags to the dyke in Pierrefonds, Quebec, during Operation Lentus, 11 May 2017.

Pan-CAF and External Engagement: Assisting Success

Enabling the three preceding lines of effort requires the management efforts of the Chief of Reserves and Employer Support leadership, and the efforts of staff who handle the affairs of the organisation and join with the CAF and DND to provide an internal connection. National engagement occurs in conjunction with the CFLC, while worldwide involvement happens through a variety of professional development opportunities, as well as via international committees and organizations, most having a NATO nexus.

For internal engagement, the focus of the Chief of Reserves and Employer Support is advice through various working groups and standing meetings. The focus of this work is strategic level institutional advice, focused upon the implementation of initiatives which support the movement of the Reserve Force towards achieving integration, as part of this consists of contributions to the capability development work led by Chief of Force Development and the Environments, and policy work on behalf of the Chief of Military Personnel. The focus of outside engagement for the Chief of Reserves and Employer Support supported by the CFLC is to encourage a connection between external institutions and commanders at many levels: typically, formation and above. While the CLFC helps with establishing the network, it is the Chief of Reserves and Employer Support which builds the Reserve support programs in a fashion that meets the intent of commanders at all levels. At the lowest level, this is done by the Liaison Officers and Regional Chief Warrant Officers who engage with and support unit Commanding Officers. At the next level is the Regional Liaison Officers (colonels/captains (Navy)), and their engagement and support of formation commanders, such as the Canadian Brigade Group, Army, and Division Commanders, Naval Reserve Regional Commanders, or RCAF Wings, depending upon the region/province. These levels of engagement provide liaison and communication between the appropriate commanders and Provincial Chairs of the CFLC from across Canada, who are part of the National CFLC. The Chief of Reserves and Employer Support interacts collaboratively with the Chair of the National Council and the National Council membership to achieve program outcomes. Throughout this process, the CAF senior leadership provides, through the Chief of Reserves and Employer Support, guidance regarding these objectives and goals.

Plus, the Chief of Reserves and Employer Support is building upon the successful interactions accrued by the 2018 hosting of the Summer Congress of the CIOR in Quebec City. Additionally, it must be noted that participation began in CISOR. Renewed and continued engagement in these fora has the CAF acting as a leader within these Reserve organizations. Efforts in this regard will be maintained, and these positions will be staffed from across the Reserves into the future. Engagement under NATO, through the NRFC, will evolve with Canada’s Reserve Force.

Importantly, a key facet of the work of the Chief of Reserves and Employer Support is to monitor, coordinate, and provide Reserve specific advice to senior leaders in support of defence objectives. This work is intended to assist with successfully delivering the initiatives outlined in Strong, Secure, Engaged, and to deliver employer outreach and engagement programs in accordance with departmental priorities. Likewise of importance are leader engagements with many Canadian community, business, and institutional sponsors. In the CAF, it can be said that “…we share our men and women with their families;” it can also be said that “…we share our Reservists with their families and employers” It is vital to our success that we communicate with these stakeholders.14 All these efforts must support and enable the CAF as an institution and the Reserve Force in that which it needs to be able to do, which is to fight threats natural or man-made well into the future.

DND photo LX02-2019-0025-272 by Master Corporal Donnie McDonald

Members of the Naval Reserve and Canadian Army conduct reconnaissance around Rockland and Cumberland, Ontario, during Operation Lentus, 3 May 2019.

Evolving to an Integrated Reserve Force

At the end of the 1990s, in the wake of the Cold War, it was apparent to the Canadian defence community that the global security environment had undergone significant change. Over and above this recognition were unfortunate events involving the Canadian military in Somalia, Rwanda, and the former Yugoslavia. In response, the Canadian government undertook a directed review of the nation’s military. Consequently, the final years of that decade produced significant military introspection and change. One of the issues examined during this scrutiny was reviewing the role and organization of the Reserves. Then, the Reserves were shaped by the defence exigencies of the Cold War, as well as by the funding available during those years. Arguably, the latest examination of the Reserves started in the 1990s, and it has been ongoing ever since. It has ebbed and flowed, shaped by the escalating threats posed by the first two decades of the 21st Century. These include Canadian military transformation and evolving defence policy, and Canada’s related military engagement at home and abroad, notably in Afghanistan from 2002 to 2014. With the issuance of 2017’s Strong, Secure, Engaged: Canada’s Defence Policy, the time is at hand to finalize these longstanding initiatives to create Reserve Forces which will meet the ongoing challenges posed to Canada by complex domestic and international security settings.

DND photo LE02-2019-0025-01 by Master Corporal Brandon O’Connell

CH-146 Griffon helicopter pilots from 408 Tactical Helicopter Squadron arrive at High Level Airport to assist the Province of Alberta with wildfires during Operation Lentus 19-03, 4 June 2019.


Within this most recent defence policy is clear direction to fundamentally change the way the Reserve Force been recruited, trained, equipped, and employed. This is no small feat, as Canada’s own history with respect to making changes to the Reserve Force has not been replete with examples of long-term success.15 Nevertheless, Canada expects more out of its Reserve Force, with this clear articulation that the Reserves will contribute across the spectrum of operations, be they at home or abroad. Historically, the Reserve Force has operated using an ad hoc approach entailing a high degree of uncertainty surrounding whether Reservists were available to train or to deploy. This must change, and is changing.

The four primary foci of the Chief of Reserves and Employer Support explored in this article are designed to contribute to the achievement of objectives outlined in Strong, Secure, Engaged: Canada’s Defence Policy. These are: (1) support to institutional integration; (2) support to retention; (3) learning from our international partners and allies; and (4) pan-CAF and external engagement, and all are underpinned by the concept of integration and the activities that support its furtherance. These Chief of Reserve and Employer Support endeavors will assist the CAF towards building, supporting, and sustaining an agile Reserve Force that can predictably commit to operations, thereby increasing military capacity exponentially. It will assist with creating an ability to fully employ and deploy Reservists, provide greater opportunity to tap into Canadian diversity through the Reserve Force, and allow the CAF to attract in-demand skills and trades in a way that is not possible in the Regular Force. This will all contribute to meeting Canada’s defence need for an integrated Reserve that can be counted upon to deliver “full-time capability through part-time service.”

The authors would like to thank Brigadier-General Shawn Bindon, Director General Reserves, and Ms. Lindsay M. Coombs for their review and suggestions with regards to this article.

DND photo by Master Corporal Ken Galbraith

A Tactical Armored Patrol Vehicle from 5th Canadian Division, CFB Gagetown, is seen during operations under the Bill Thorpe Walking Bridge to supply troops working to stem the flooding at the intersection of Waterloo Row and Brunswick Street, Fredericton, New Brunswick, caused by overflowing of the St. John River during spring thaw, Operation Lentus, 23 April 2019.


  1. Canada, Department of National Defence, Strong, Secure, Engaged: Canada’s Defence Policy, (June 2017), at:, accessed 6 June 2017, p. 67.
  2. The Chief of Reserves and Employer Support consists of the Chief of Reserves and Employer Support, a major-general or rear-admiral, the Director-General Reserves and Employer Support, a brigadier-general or commodore, along with the administrative staff who support the structure. There are three directors who, along with their directorates, perform the Chief of Reserves and Employer Support tasks. They are the (1) Director Reserves, a colonel or captain (Navy), who monitors and coordinates reserve-specific advice and counsel to responsible organizations across the Canadian military; (2) Executive Director Employer Support Programs, an executive, who provides support and oversight of the Canadian Forces Liaison Council, as well as employer support/retention activities; and (3) Director International Reserve Outreach, a colonel or captain (Navy), who, with a number of staff, manages reserve international engagements not already done by others. The members of the Chief of Reserve and Employer Support are a combination of full- and part-time reservists and civil servants.
  3. All Chief of Reserves and Employer Support functions are governed by four lines of effort, and this is operationalized by internal and external engagement. These four lines of effort are (1) support to institutional integration; (2) support to retention; (3) learning from our allies and international partners; and (4) command support, strategic communications (STRATCOM) and business management. The last line of effort is an internal management and support function necessary for the Chief of Reserves and Employer Support, but not necessarily tied to advice or assistance to senior leadership. Consequently, it is not explored in detail in this article. See Canada, Department of National Defence, “Chief of Reserves and Employer Support (CRES) FY 2020/21 to 2022/23 Business Plan Version 3 (as of 20 February 2020).”
  4. “Reserve duties and schedules vary from person-to-person. While some contribute a few days per month, others are on full-time service. This flexibility allows Canadians to serve their country according to their personal circumstances. Full-time capability with a part-time service will require Reserve Force units and formations to bring together the contributions of these various part-time Canadian Armed Forces members to provide 24/7 defined readiness capability according to the new and enhanced roles assigned to them. This construct will allow Reservists to balance a vibrant civilian life and occupation with meaningful, part-time military service, while enhancing the overall Canadian Armed Forces effectiveness.” Canada, Department of National Defence, Strong, Secure, Engaged: Canada’s Defence Policy, (June 2017); at:, accessed 6 June 2017, p, 68.
  5. See Canada, Department of National Defence, Canadian Joint Operations Command, “Pan-Domain Force Employment Concept (PFEC) (Draft – Version 9 Amendment 1.2)” (2019).
  6. For more information regarding these programs, see Canada, Department of National Defence, “Supporting reservists and employers,” at:, accessed 1 May 2020.
  7. Paul Earnshaw and John Price, “Employer support for reserves: Some international comparisons of reserve capabilities,” in Australian Defence Force Journal, No. 185 (July/August 2011), p. 45, at:, accessed 26 May 2018.
  8. While the Chief of Reserves and Employer Support can mitigate institutional barriers to the Clerk’s intent to encourage the hiring of Reserves by the Public Service, actual recruitment and hiring, rests elsewhere in DND or Government through normal hiring processes.
  9. NATO, “E-Library: Reserve forces,” n.p.; at:, accessed 26 May 2018; and, Enclosure to NATO, North Atlantic MC, Secretary General, “Final Decision on MC 0392/1 MC Directive For The National Reserve Forces Committee (NRFC)” (27 July 2012), p. 2.
  10. NATO, “E-Library: Reserve forces,” n.p.; at:, accessed 26 May 2018; Enclosure to NATO, North Atlantic Military Committee, Secretary General, “Military Decision on MC 441/2 NATO Framework Policy on Reserves” (19 January 2012), para 18; and, Enclosure to NATO, North Atlantic MC, Secretary General, “Final Decision on MC 0248/2 The Relationship Between NATO and the Interallied Confederation of Reserve Officers (CIOR)” (27 July 2012), 4; Interestingly, most Reserve Forces have a National Reserve Officers Association, whereas Canada does not. Chief of Reserves and Employer Support represents Canada in such forums in lieu of an association.
  11. NATO, “E-Library: Reserve forces,” n.p.; at:, accessed 26 May 2018.
  12. See “CISOR,” n.p.; at CIOMR, accessed 31 May 2018; and, Email from NRFC Secretariat dated 18 June 2018 [In possession of the author].
  13. Enclosure to NATO, North Atlantic MC, Secretary General, “Final Decision on MC 0248/2 The Relationship Between NATO and the Interallied Confederation of Reserve Officers (CIOR)” (27 July 2012), p. 4.
  14. See Jody A. Hudec, “Views and Opinions: Twice the Citizen – Twice the Employer,” in Canadian Military Journal, Vol. 6, No. 3 (Summer 2005), pp. 84-85.
  15. See Major-General Eric Tremblay and Howard G. Coombs. “Canadian Armed Forces Reserves – Quo Vadis?” in Canadian Military Journal, Vol. 16, No. 3 (Summer 2016), pp.16-28.