Canadian Military Journal
PO Box 17000, Station Forces
Kingston, Ontario CANADA
K7K 7B4


Dave Bashow (613) 541-5010 ext. 6148

Publication Manager
Claire Chartrand (613) 541-5010 ext. 6837

Editorial Advisor
Michael Boire

Martin Shadwick

Translation Bureau, Public Services and Procurement Canada

Oversight Committee

Major-General D. Craig Aitchison, Commander, Canadian Defence Academy (CDA)
Mr. David L. Bashow, Editor-in-Chief, Canadian Military Journal (CMJ)
Colonel Marty Cournoyer, representing Chief of the Air Staff (CAS)
Dr. H.J. Kowal, Principal, Royal Military College of Canada (RMC)
Captain (N) J. Jeffrey Hutchinson, representing Chief of the Naval Staff (CNS)
Brigadier-General S. Bouchard, Commander, Royal Military College of Canada (RMC)
Major Chris Young, representing Chief of Staff Army Strategy
Lieutenant-Colonel Brent Clute, Director Canadian Forces Military Law Centre (CFMLC), Canadian Defence Academy (CDA)
Ms. Hanya Soliman, representing Chief of the Defence Intelligence (CDI)

Editorial Board

Dr. Douglas Bland
Major (ret'd) Michael Boire
LCol (ret'd) Douglas Delaney
Dr. Rocky J. Dwyer
Lieutenant-Colonel (ret’d) Michael Goodspeed
Major Tanya Grodzinski
Dr. David Hall
Professor Michael Hennessy
Colonel (ret'd) Bernd Horn
Professor Hamish Ion
Phillippe Lagassé
Lieutenant-Colonel (ret'd) David Last
Dr. Chris Madsen
Dr. Sean Maloney
Professor Brian McKercher
Dr. Paul Mitchell
Dr. Nezih Mrad
Dr. Scot Robertson
Professor Stéphane Roussel
Professor Elinor Sloan

Chief Warrant Officer G.R.C. McCann

Colonel (ret'd) Randall Wakelam

Canadian Military Journal is the official professional journal of the Canadian Armed Forces and the Department of National Defence. It is published quarterly under authority of the Minister of National Defence. Opinions expressed or implied in this publication are those of the author, and do not necessarily represent the views of the Department of National Defence, the Canadian Forces, Canadian Military Journal, or any agency of the Government of Canada. Crown copyright is retained. Articles may be reproduced with permission of the Editor, on condition that appropriate credit is given to Canadian Military Journal. Each issue of the journal is published simultaneously in print and electronic versions; it is available on the Internet at

ISSN 1492-465X


As a bilingual journal, readers should take note that where citations are translated from their original language, the abbreviation [TOQ] at the end of the note, which stands for "translation of original quote", indicates to the readers that the original citation can be found in the published version of the Journal in the other official language.